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Reflections: Priests & Voctns. Sctn. (Misc.)

St. John Vianney, the Curé D'Ars (patron saint of priests)

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Priests & Vocations Sctn.:


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"A vocation is a mystery of divine election." (Pope John Paul II)

"[W]e are taught of God through the instrumentality of men" (St. John Chrysostom, Doctor of the Church)

"Give the soul of the faithful wings with which to fly from the earth to contemplate heavenly matters" (Pope Clement XIII, "A Quo Die", 1758 A.D.)

"It is most highly expedient for the salvation of souls, that they be governed by worthy and competent parish priests." (Council of Trent)

"Can. 219 All the Christian faithful have the right to be free from any kind of coercion in choosing a state of life." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 135 §1 The power of governance is divided into legislative, executive and judicial power." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"[T]hose who are honoured with pontifical rank and other prelates of the church... should [be shown] honour and reverence." (Fifth Lateran Council)

"Adopted sons are the ministers of the only Son. The only Son has power, adopted sons have ministry." (St. Augustine, Doctor of the Church, c. 417 A.D.)

"For though prelates may sometimes be of different merits, the rights of sees, nevertheless are permanent." (Pope St. Leo I the Great, Doctor of the Church, c. 453 A.D.)

"In the next place, that irreverence may be avoided, each, in his own diocese, shall forbid that any wandering or unknown priest be allowed to celebrate mass." (Council of Trent)

"Can. 546 To be validly appointed an assistant priest (parochial vicar), one must be in the sacred order of priesthood." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"It is very important that all priests, whether diocesan or religious, help one another always to be fellow workers in the truth." (Second Vatican Council)

"Can. 293 A cleric who loses the clerical state cannot be enrolled among clerics again except through a rescript of the Apostolic See." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 150 An office which carries with it the full care of souls, for which the exercise of the order of priesthood is required, cannot validly be conferred upon a person who is not yet a priest." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 1752 In cases of transfer, the provisions of Can. 1747 are to be applied, always observing canonical equity and keeping in mind the salvation of souls, which in the Church must always be the supreme law." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 575 The evangelical counsels, based on the teaching and example of Christ the Master, are a divine gift which the Church received from the Lord and which by His grace it preserves always." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 274 §1 Only clerics can obtain offices the exercise of which requires the power of order or the power of ecclesiastical governance. §2 Unless excused by a lawful impediment, clerics are obliged to accept and faithfully fulfil the office committed to them by their Ordinary." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"A vocation is a call that comes from God's sovereign power and free gift.. However, such a call must find an open path in the heart. It must enter into the depths of the subject's thoughts, feelings and will in order to influence one's moral behavior." (Pope John Paul II)

"Can. 2378 Major clerics who gravely neglect in their sacred ministry the rites and ceremonies prescribed by the Church, having been warned, and failing to reform themselves, are suspended according to the varying gravity of the thing." (1917 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 370 A territorial prelature or abbacy is a certain portion of the [Church], territorially defined, the care of which is for special reasons entrusted to a Prelate or an Abbot, who governs it, in the manner of a diocesan Bishop, as its proper pastor." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 1389 §1 A person who abuses ecclesiastical power or an office, is to be punished according to the gravity of the act or the omission, not excluding by deprivation of the office, unless a penalty for that abuse is already established by law or precept." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 556 Rectors of churches are here understood to be priests to whom is entrusted the care of some church which is neither a parochial nor a capitular church, nor a church attached to the house of a religious community or a society of apostolic life which holds services in it." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Obedient to this duty, the priest continues to do down the course of the ages, that which Christ Himself had done, who 'in the days of His earthly life, with a loud cry and tears, offered up prayers and supplications...and was heard because of His reverent submission'." (Pope Pius XII, "Menti Nostrae", 1950 A.D.)

"Can. 503 A chapter of canons, whether cathedral or collegial, is a college of priests which performs more solemn liturgical functions in a cathedral or collegial church. In addition, it is for the cathedral chapter to fulfill the functions which the law or the diocesan bishop entrusts to it." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 505 Each and every chapter, whether cathedral or collegial, is to have its own statutes, drawn up through a legitimate capitular act and approved by the diocesan bishop. These statutes are neither to be changed nor abrogated except with the approval of the diocesan bishop." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"There will be one thing only sought (says St. Bernard) by His subjects, one glory, one pleasure - to make ready for the Lord a perfect people. For this they will give everything with much exertion of mind and body, with toil and suffering, with hunger and thirst, with cold and nakedness." (Pope Leo XIII, "Exeunte Iam Anno", 1888 A.D.)

"But unfaithful servants arose, who divided Christ's flock, and handed down the division to their successors: and you hear them say, Those sheep are mine, what seek you with my sheep, I will not let you come to my sheep. If we call our sheep ours, as they call them theirs, Christ has lost His sheep." (St. Augustine, Doctor of the Church)

"May the enormity of the labors which it will be necessary fervently to undertake for the glory of the Most Benign Redeemer and for the salvation of souls not daunt you, Dearly Beloved, but may it rather stimulate you, whose confidence is in the Divine Help, since great works generate more robust virtues and achieve more resplendent merits." (Pope Pius XII, "Sertum Laetitiae", 1939 A.D.)

"Can. 1503 With due regard for the prescription of Canons 621-24, it is forbidden that private persons, whether clerics or laity, collect [donations] for any pious or ecclesiastical institute or purpose without the permission of the Apostolic See or of their Own ordinary and the Ordinary of the place [where the collection occurs], given in writing." (1917 Code of Canon Law)

"Far be it from me to censure the successors of the apostles, who with holy words consecrate the Body of Christ, and who make us Christians. Having the keys of the kingdom of heaven, they judge men to some extent before the day of judgement, and guard the chastity of the bride of Christ." (St. Jerome, Doctor of the Church, c. 375 A.D.)

"[N]othing impedes the church of God more than when unworthy prelates are accepted for the government of churches. Therefore, in the preferment of prelates, the Roman Pontiffs must give much attention to the matter, especially because they will have to give an account to God at the last judgment about those given preferment by them to churches and monasteries." (Fifth Lateran Council)

"Can. 283 §1 Even if clerics do not have a residential office, they nevertheless are not to be absent from their diocese for a notable period of time, to be determined by particular law, without at least the presumed permission of their proper Ordinary. §2 They are entitled, however, to a fitting and sufficient time of vacation each year as determined by universal or particular law." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"While still on earth, He instructed us by precept, counsel and warning in words that shall never pass away, and will be spirit and life to all men of all times. Moreover He conferred a triple power on His Apostles and their successors, to teach, to govern, to lead men to holiness, making this power, defined by special ordinances, rights and obligations, the fundamental law of the whole Church." (Pope Pius XII, "Mystici Corporis Christi", 1943 A.D.)

"Can. 292 A cleric who loses the clerical state in accordance with the law, loses thereby the rights that are proper to the clerical state and is no longer bound by any obligations of the clerical state, without prejudice to can. 291. He is prohibited from exercising the power of order, without prejudice to can. 976. He is automatically deprived of all offices and roles and of any delegated power." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 282 §1 Clerics are to follow a simple way of life and avoid all things which have a semblance of vanity. §2 Goods which they receive on the occasion of the exercise of an ecclesiastical office, and which are over and above what is necessary for their worthy upkeep and the fulfillment of all the duties of their state, they may well wish to use for the good of the Church and for charitable works." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 290 Sacred ordination once validly received never becomes invalid. A cleric, however, loses the clerical state: 1° by a judgement of a court or an administrative decree, declaring the ordination invalid; 2° by the penalty of dismissal lawfully imposed; 3° by a rescript of the Apostolic See; this rescript, however, is granted to deacons only for grave reasons and to priests only for the gravest of reasons." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 1274 §1 In every diocese there is to be a special fund which collects offerings and temporal goods for the purpose of providing, in accordance with Can. 281, for the support of the clergy who serve the diocese, unless provision is made for them in another way. §2 Where there is as yet no properly organized system of social provision for the clergy, the Episcopal Conference is to see that a fund is established which will furnish adequate social security for them." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"Is any one of Us not aroused by the words God speaks to Us through the prophet Ezechiel: 'Son of man, I have given you as a guide to the house of Israel: and you shall hear a word from my mouth, and you shall proclaim to them from me. If when I say to the wicked, you shall die the death, you do not proclaim it to him...the wicked man shall die in his iniquity but I shall look for his blood from your hand.'' I confess this statement startles me and prevents me from being slothful and fearful in executing the demands of my office." (Pope Pius VII, "Diu Satis", 1800 A.D.)

"Through the intercession, therefore, of the most Holy Virgin, the August Mother of the Incarnate Word Himself, and the Queen of the Apostles, may Jesus Christ the merciful and everlasting Shepherd of souls vouchsafe to look down with favor on His flock, fill the clergy with the apostolic spirit, and grant that there may be many who will strive eagerly 'to present themselves approved unto God workmen that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth.' [2 Tim. 2:15]" (Pope Benedict XV, "Humani Generis Redemptionem", 1917 A.D.)

"Can. 2317 Those pertinaciously teaching and defending, whether publicly or privately doctrines that have been condemned by the Apostolic See or a General Council, but not formally defined as heretical are prevented from the ministry of preaching the word of God and [from the ministry] of hearing sacramental confessions and from any office of teaching, with due regard for other penalties that a sentence of condemnation might establish or that an Ordinary, after a warning, concludes were necessary to repair scandal." (1917 Code of Canon Law)

"Can. 1386 § 1 Secular clerics are forbidden, without the consent of their Ordinaries, [and likewise] religious without the permission of their major Superiors and local Ordinaries, to edit books that treat of profane [secular] things and to write for or supervise newspapers, pamphlets, and periodical literature. § 2 Neither shall laity, unless persuaded by just and reasonable cause approved by the local Ordinary, write for newspapers, pamphlets or periodical literature that is accustomed to attacking the Catholic religion or good morals." (1917 Code of Canon Law)

"The priestly life certainly requires an authentic spiritual intensity in order to live by the Spirit; it requires a truly virile asceticism - both interior and exterior - in one who, belonging in a special way to Christ, has in Him and through Him 'crucified the flesh with its passions and desires,' not hesitating to face arduous and lengthy trials in order to do so. In this way Christ's minister will be the better able to show to the world the fruits of the Spirit, which are 'charity, joy, peace, patience, benignity, goodness, longanimity, mildness, faith, modesty, continency, chastity.'' (Pope Paul VI, 1967 A.D.)

"Those goods which priests and bishops receive for the exercise of their ecclesiastical office should be used for adequate support arid the fulfillment of their office and status, excepting those governed by particular laws. That which is in excess they should be willing to set aside for the good of the Church or for works of charity. Thus they are not to seek ecclesiastical office or the benefits of it for the increase of their own family wealth. Therefore, in no way placing their heart in treasures, they should avoid all greediness and carefully abstain from every appearance of business." (Second Vatican Council)

"Can. 557 §1 The rector of a church is freely appointed by the diocesan Bishop, without prejudice to a right of election or presentation to which someone may lawfully have claim: in which case the diocesan Bishop has the right to confirm or to appoint the rector. §2 Even if the church belongs to some clerical religious institute of pontifical right, it is for the diocesan Bishop to appoint the rector presented by the Superior. §3 The rector of a church which is attached to a seminary or to a college governed by clerics, is the rector of the seminary or college, unless the diocesan Bishop has determined otherwise." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"[M]en are but the instruments whom God employs for the salvation of souls; they must, therefore, be instruments fit to be employed by God. And how is this to be achieved? Do we imagine that God is influenced by any inborn or acquired excellence of ours, to make use of our help for the extension of his glory? By no means; for it is written: God has chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise, and the weak things of the world God has chosen to confound the strong, and the humble and contemptible things of the world God has chosen, the things that are not, in order to bring to nought the things that are." (Pope St. Pius X, "Haerent Animo", 1908 A.D.)

"Not many years ago, with great satisfaction, We decreed the honors of the altar to the Turinese priest, Giuseppe Cafasso who, as you know, in a most difficult period, was the wise and holy spiritual guide of not a few priests whom he helped to progress in virtue and whose sacred ministry he rendered particularly fruitful. We are fully confident that, through his powerful patronage, our Divine Redeemer will raise up many priests of like sanctity who will bring themselves and their brethren in the ministry to such a height of perfection in their lives that the faithful, admiring their example, will feel themselves moved spontaneously to imitate it." (Pope Pius XII, "Menti Nostrae", 1950 A.D.)

"The closer collaborators of the bishop are those priests who are charged with a pastoral office or apostolic organizations of a supra-parochial nature, whether in a certain area of the diocese or among special groups of the faithful or with respect to a specific kind of activity. Priests assigned by the bishop to various works of the apostolate, whether in schools or in other institutions or associations, contribute an exceedingly valuable assistance. Those priests also who are engaged in supra-diocesan works are commended to the special consideration of the bishop in whose diocese they reside, for they perform outstanding works of the apostolate." (Second Vatican Council)

"Venerable brothers in the episcopacy, priest and ministers of the altar, by way of completing and leaving a remembrance of this written conversation with you, we should like to suggest this resolution to you: that on the anniversary of his ordination, or on Holy Thursday when all are united in spirit commemorating the mystery of the institution of the priesthood, each one should renew his total gift of himself to Christ our Lord; reviving in this way the awareness that He has chosen you for His divine service, and repeating at the same time, humbly and courageously, the promise of our unswerving faithfulness to His love alone in your offering of perfect chastity." (Pope Paul VI, 1967 A.D.)

"Can. 285 §1 Clerics are to shun completely everything that is unbecoming to their state, in accordance with the provisions of particular law. §2 Clerics are to avoid whatever is foreign to their state, even when it is not unseemly. §3 Clerics are forbidden to assume public office whenever it means sharing in the exercise of civil power. §4 Without the permission of their Ordinary, they may not undertake the administration of goods belonging to lay people, or secular offices which involve the obligation to render an account. They are forbidden to act as surety, even concerning their own goods, without consulting their proper Ordinary. They are not to sign promissory notes which involve the payment of money but do not state the reasons for the payment." (1983 Code of Canon Law)

"In such retreats and recollection even one who may have entered in sortem Domini, not by the straight way of a true vocation, but for earthly or less noble motives, will be able to 'stir up the grace of God.' For he, too, is now indissolubly bound to God and the Church, and so nothing remains for him but to follow the advice of St. Bernard: 'If sanctity of life did not precede, let it at least follow ... for the future make good your ways and ambitions and make holy your ministry.' The grace of God, and specifically that grace proper to the sacrament of Holy Orders, will not fail to lend aid, if he sincerely wishes to correct whatever was originally amiss in his purpose or conduct. However it may have come about that he undertook the obligations of the priesthood, the abiding grace of this divine sacrament will not be wanting in power to enable him to fulfill them." (Pope Pius XI, "Ad Catholici Sacerdotii", 1935 A.D.)

"In our own day, alas! it is the contrary that happens all too frequently. Members of the clergy allow their minds to be overcome gradually by the darkness of doubt and turn aside to worldly pursuits; the chief reason for this is that they prefer to read a variety of other works and newspapers, which are full of cunningly propounded errors and corruption, rather than the divine books and other pious literature. Be on your guard, beloved sons; do not trust in your experience and mature years, do not be deluded by the vain hope that you can thus better serve the general good. Do not transgress the limits which are determined by the laws of the Church, nor go beyond what is suggested by prudence and charity towards oneself. Anyone who admits this poison into his soul will rarely escape the disastrous consequences of the evil thus introduced." (Pope St. Pius X, "Haerent Animo", 1908 A.D.)

"Among the virtues that priests must possess for their sacred ministry none is so important as a frame of mind and soul whereby they are always ready to know and do the will of Him who sent them and not their own will. The divine task that they are called by the Holy Spirit to fulfill surpasses all human wisdom and human ability. 'God chooses the weak things of the world to confound the strong' (I Cor. 1:27). Aware of his own weakness, the true minister of Christ works in humility trying to do what is pleasing to God. Filled with the Holy Spirit, he is guided by Him who desires the salvation of all men. He understands this desire of God and follows it in the ordinary circumstances of his everyday life. With humble disposition he waits upon all whom God has sent him to serve in the work assigned to him and in the multiple experiences of his life." (Second Vatican Council)

"Bring it home to their minds, as We have Ourselves oftentimes conveyed the warning, that matters of the highest moment and worthy of all honor are at stake, for the safeguarding of which every most toilsome effort should be readily endured; and that a sublime reward is in store for the labors of a Christian life. On the other hand, to refrain from doing battle for Jesus Christ amounts to fighting against Him; He Himself assures us 'He will deny before His Father in heaven those who shall have refused to confess Him on earth.' As for Ourselves and you all, never assuredly, so long as life lasts, shall We allow Our authority, Our counsels, and Our solicitude to be in any wise lacking in the conflict. Nor is it to be doubted but that especial aid of the great God will be vouchsafed, so long as the struggle endures, to the flock alike and to the pastors" (Pope Leo XIII, "Sapientiae Christianae", 1890 A.D.)

"Many constitutions have been issued in the past against the evil of simony, but they have not been able to eradicate the disease. We wish to attend carefully to this matter in the future according as we are able to. We therefore declare, with the approval of this sacred council, that persons ordained in a simoniacal fashion are automatically suspended from exercising their orders. Simoniacal elections, postulations, confirmations and provisions that are henceforth made to or in respect of any churches, monasteries, dignities, parsonages, offices or ecclesiastical benefices are rendered null by the law itself and nobody acquires any rights through them. Those who have been thus promoted, confirmed or provided may not receive their fruits but are bound to restore them as though they had received things that had been unjustly taken. We decree, moreover, that both those who give and those who receive money in this matter of simony automatically incur the sentence of excommunication, even though their rank be pontifical or cardinalatial." (Council of Constance)

"He commands that the teaching of the Apostles should be religiously accepted and piously kept as if it were His own - 'He who hears you hears Me, he who despises you despises Me' (Luke x., 16). Wherefore the Apostles are ambassadors of Christ as He is the ambassador of the Father. 'As the Father sent Me so also I send you' (John xx., 21). Hence as the Apostles and Disciples were bound to obey Christ, so also those whom the Apostles taught were, by God's command, bound to obey them. And, therefore, it was no more allowable to repudiate one iota of the Apostles' teaching than it was to reject any point of the doctrine of Christ Himself. Truly the voice of the Apostles, when the Holy Ghost had come down upon them, resounded throughout the world. Wherever they went they proclaimed themselves the ambassadors of Christ Himself. 'By whom (Jesus Christ) we have received grace and Apostleship for obedience to the faith in all nations for His name' (Rom. i., 5). And God makes known their divine mission by numerous miracles. 'But they going forth preached everywhere: the Lord working withal, and confirming the word with signs that followed' (Mark xvi., 20)." (Pope Leo XIII, "Satis Cognitum", 1896 A.D.)

"A priest exercises a twofold action: the one, which is principal, over the true body of Christ; the other, which is secondary, over the mystical body of Christ. The second act depends on the first, but not conversely. Wherefore some are raised to the priesthood, to whom the first act alone is deputed, for instance those religious who are not empowered with the care of souls. The law is not sought at the mouth of these, they are required only for the celebration of the sacraments; and consequently it is enough for them to have such knowledge as enables them to observe rightly those things that regard the celebration of the sacraments. Others are raised to exercise the other act which is over the mystical body of Christ, and it is at the mouth of these that the people seek the law; wherefore they ought to possess knowledge of the law, not indeed to know all the difficult points of the law (for in these they should have recourse to their superiors), but to know what the people have to believe and fulfill in the law. To the higher priests, namely the bishops, it belongs to know even those points of the law which may offer some difficulty, and to know them the more perfectly according as they are in a higher position." (St. Thomas Aquinas, Doctor of the Church and "greatest theologian in the history of the Church")

"We praise you and we thank you, O God: all the earth adores you. We, your ministers, with the voices of the Prophets and the chorus of the Apostles, proclaim you as Father and Lord of life, of every form of life which comes from you alone. We recognize you, O Most Holy Trinity, as the birthplace and beginning of our vocation; You, the Father, from eternity have thought of us, wanted us and loved us; You, the Son, have chosen us and called us to share in your unique and eternal priesthood; You, the Holy Spirit, have filled us with your gifts and have consecrated us with your holy anointing. You, the Lord of time and history, have placed us on the threshold of the Third Christian Millennium, in order to be witnesses to the salvation which you have accomplished for all humanity. We, the Church which proclaims your glory, implore you: let there never be lacking holy priests to serve the Gospel; let there solemnly resound in every Cathedral and in every corner of the world the hymn 'Veni, Creator Spiritus'. Come, O Creator Spirit! Come to raise up new generations of young people, ready to work in the Lord's vineyard, to spread the Kingdom of God to the furthermost ends of the earth. And you, Mary, Mother of Christ, who at the foot of the Cross accepted us as beloved sons with the Apostle John, continue to watch over our vocation. To you we entrust the years of ministry which Providence will grant us yet to live. Be near us to guide us along the paths of the world, to meet the men and women whom your Son redeemed with His Blood. Help us to fulfill completely the will of Jesus, born of you for the salvation of humanity. O Christ, you are our hope! 'In te, Domine, speravi, non confundar in aeternum'." (Pope John Paul II, 1996)

"Whereas it is by divine precept enjoined on all, to whom the cure of souls is committed, to know their own sheep; to offer [the Eucharistic] sacrifice for them; and, by the preaching of the divine word, by the administration of the sacraments, and by the example of all good works, to feed them; to have a fatherly care of the poor and of other distressed persons, and to apply themselves to all other pastoral duties; all which (offices) cannot be rendered and fulfilled by those who neither watch over nor are with their own flock, but abandon it after the manner of hirelings; the sacred and holy Synod admonishes and exhorts such, that mindful of the divine precepts, and made a pattern of the flock, they feed and rule in judgment and in truth. And for fear lest those things which have been already elsewhere holily and usefully ordained, concerning residence, under Paul III., of happy memory, may be wrested to a meaning alien from the mind of the sacred and holy Synod, as if by virtue of that decree it were lawful to be absent during five continuous months; the sacred and holy Synod, adhering to those decrees, declares, that all persons who are - under whatsoever name and title, even though they be cardinals of the holy Roman Church - set over any patriarchal, primatial, metropolitan, and cathedral churches whatsoever, are obliged to personal residence in their own church, or diocese, where they shall be bound to discharge the office enjoined them; and may not be absent thence, save for the causes and in the manner subjoined. For whereas Christian charity, urgent necessity, due obedience, and the evident utility of the Church, or of the commonwealth, require and demand that some at times be absent, this same sacred and holy Synod ordains, that these causes of lawful absence are to be approved of in writing by the most blessed Roman Pontiff, or by the metropolitan, or, in his absence, by the oldest resident suffragan bishop, whose duty it shall also be to approve of the absence of the metropolitan; except when such absence happens in consequence of some employment and office in the state attached to the bishoprics; the causes of which absence being notorious, and at times sudden, it will not be necessary even to notify them to the metropolitan; to whom it shall however belong, conjointly with the provincial Council, to judge of the permissions granted by himself, or by his suffragan, and to see that no one abuse that right, and that transgressors are punished with the penalties adjudged by the canons. Meanwhile let those about to depart remember to provide in such sort for their sheep, as that, as far as possible, they may not suffer any injury through their absence. But, forasmuch as those who are only absent for a short period, are, in the sense of the ancient canons, not supposed to be absent, for that they are about to return immediately; the sacred and holy Synod wills, that that term of absence, whether continuous or interrupted, ought not by any means to exceed two, or at most three, months; except for the causes above named; and that regard be had that it be done from a just cause, and without any detriment to the flock: which, whether it be the case, the Synod leaves to the conscience of those who withdraw themselves which It hopes will be religious and timorous; seeing that their hearts are open before God, whose work they are bound, at their peril, not to do deceitfully. In the meantime It admonishes and exhorts them in the Lord, that unless their episcopal duties call them to some other part of their own diocese, they on no account be absent from their own cathedral church during the period of the Advent of the Lord, and of Lent, on the days of the Nativity, of the Lord's Resurrection, of Pentecost, and of Corpus Christi, on which days especially the sheep ought to be refreshed, and to rejoice in the Lord at the presence of the Shepherd." (Council of Trent)

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